Arthur Reber

Affiliate Professor
location_on 2226 Sunrise Drive
file_download Download CV

Research Area

Education

BS, University of Pennsylvania, 1961
MS, Brown University, 1965
PhD, Brown University, 1967

About

  • Assistant Professor, University of British Columbia, 1966-1970.
  • Associate Professor, Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, (CUNY) 1970-1980
  • Professor, Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of CUNY, 1980-1998
  • Broeklundian Professor Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of CUNY, 1998-2006
  • Fulbright Professor, University of Innsbruck, Austria, 1977-1978
  • Affiliate Professor, University of British Columbia, 2006-

Research

Cognitive psychology with a specific focus on “implicit learning” where knowledge is acquired largely (or completely) without conscious awareness of either the process or the products on learning.
The origins of consciousness within a general theory based on the co-terminous nature of life and sentience.


Publications

Publications Books

Reber, A. S. & Scarborough, D. L. (Eds.) (1977). Toward a psychology of reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reber, A. S. (1986, 1995, 2001, 2010). Dictionary of psychology. London, Penguin/Viking. Second edition, 1995, Third Edition, (A. S. Reber & E. S. Reber, 2001), Fourth Edition (A.S. Reber, R. Allen & E. S. Reber, 2009).

Reber, A. S. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. NY: Oxford University Press.

Reber, A. S. (2012). Xero to Sixty, a Novel.

Reber, A. S. (2019). The First Minds: Caterpillars, ‘Karyotes, and Consciousness. NY: Oxford University Press.

Publications Papers and Book Chapters

Aronfreed, J. & Reber, A. S. (1965). Internalized suppression and the timing of social punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 3 16.

Reber, A. S. & Nosanchuk, T. A. (1967). Long inter-trial intervals in probability learning. Psychonomic Science, 5, 111 112.

Reber, A. S. (1967). Implicit learning of artificial grammars. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 855 863.

Reber, A. S. & Millward, R. B. (1968). Event observation in probability learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 317 327.

Millward, R. B. & Reber, A. S. (1968). Event recall in probability learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 980 989.

Morris, V. A., Rankine, F., & Reber, A. S. (1968). Sentence comprehension, grammatical transformation, and response availability. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 1113 1115.

Reber, A. S. (1969). Response perseveration in binary choice recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 206 214.

Reber. A. S. (1969). Transfer of syntactic structure in synthetic languages. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 115 119.

Reber, A. S. & Anderson, J. R. (1970). Perception of clicks in linguistic and nonlinguistic messages. Perception and Psychophysics, 8, 81 90.

Reber, A. S. & Millward, R. B. (1971). Event tracking in probability learning. American Journal of Psychology, 84, 85 99.

Millward, R. B. & Reber, A. S. (1972). Probability learning: Contingent event sequences with lags. American Journal of Psychology, 85, 81 98.

Reber, A. S. (1973). Locating clicks in sentences: Left, center, and right. Perception and Psychophysics, 10, 133 138.

Reber, A. S. (1973). What clicks may tell us about speech perception. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2, 286 287.

Reber, A. S. (1973). On psycho linguistic paradigms. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2, 289 319.

Reber, A. S. (1976). Implicit learning of synthetic languages: The role of instructional set. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 2, 88 94.

Reber, A. S. & Lewis, S. (1977). Toward a theory of implicit learning: The analysis of the form and structure of a body of tacit knowledge. Cognition, 5, 333 361.

Schneiderman, M. H., Reber, A. S., & Hainline, L. (1978). Anagram solutions as an index of the child’s cognitive and linguistic knowledge. Child Development, 49, 765 772.

Reber, A. S. & Allen, R. (1978). Analogy and abstraction strategies in synthetic grammar learning: A functionalist interpretation. Cognition, 6, 189 221.

Kassin, S. M. & Reber, A. S. (1979). Locus of control and the learning of an artificial language. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 111 118.

Allen, R. & Reber, A. S. (1980). Very long term memory for tacit knowledge. Cognition, 8, 175 185.

Reber, A. S., Kassin, S. M., Lewis, S., & Cantor, G. W. (1980). On the relationship between implicit and explicit modes in the learning of a complex rule structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 492 502.

Reber, A. S. (1982 83). On the paranormal: In defense of skepticism. Skeptical Inquirer, 7, 55 64.

Reber, A. S., Allen, R. & Regan, S. (1985). Syntactical learning and judgment: Still unconscious and still abstract. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 17 24.

Reber. A. S. (1987). The rise and (surprisingly rapid) fall of psycholinguistics. Synthese, 72, 325 339.

Abrams, M. & Reber, A. S. (1988). Implicit learning: Robustness in the face of psychiatric disorders. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 17, 425 439.

Reber, A. S. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 219 235.

Reber, A. S. (1989). More thoughts on the unconscious: A reply to Lewicki & Hill (1989) and Brody (1989). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 242-¬244.

Reber, A. S. (1990). The primacy of the implicit: A comment on Perruchet and Pacteau. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 340 342.

Reber, A. S., Walkenfeld, F. F., & Hernstadt, R. (1991). Implicit learning: Individual differences and IQ. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 888 896.

Kushner, M., Cleeremans, A., & Reber, A. S. (1991). Implicit detection of event inter dependencies and a PDP model of the process. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 215 220. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reber, A. S. (1992). An evolutionary context for the cognitive unconscious. Philosophical Psychology, 5, 33 51.

Reber, A. S. (1992). The cognitive unconscious: An evolutionary perspective. Consciousness and Cognition, 1, 93 133.

Reber, A. S. (1992). Evolution, consciousness, and all that: A reply to Baars and to Parker. Consciousness and Cognition, 1, 143 147.

Reber, A. S. (1993). Personal knowledge and the cognitive unconscious. Polanyiana, 3, 97-115. http://www.polanyi.bme.hu/folyoirat/1992-02/1992_4_7_Arthur_Reber_cognitive_unconscious.pdf

Rathus, J., Reber, A. S., Manza, L, & Kushner, M. (1994). Implicit and explicit learning: Differential effects of affective states. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 163-184.

Reber, A. S. & Winter, B. (1994). What manner of mind is this? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 418-419.

Winter, B. & Reber, A. S. (1994). Implicit learning and natural language acquisition. In N. C. Ellis (Ed.). Implicit and explicit learning of languages. London: Academic Press.

Reber, A. S. (1997). How to differentiate implicit from explicit learning. In J. Cohen & J. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific approaches to consciousness. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reber, A. S. (1997). Implicit ruminations. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 4, 49-55

Manza, L. & Reber, A. S. (1997). Representing artificial grammars: Transfer across stimulus forms and modalities. In D. C. Berry (Ed.) How implicit is implicit learning?. London: Oxford University Press.

Reber, A. S. (1997). Caterpillars and consciousness. Philosophical Psychology, 10, 437-450.

Manza, L., Zizak, D. & Reber, A. S. (1998). Artificial grammar learning and the mere exposure effect. In M. Stadler & P. Frensch (Eds.), Handbook of implicit learning. New York: Sage Publications.

Hsiao, A. & Reber, A. S. (1998). The role of attention in implicit sequence learning. In M. Stadler & P. Frensch (Eds.), Handbook of implicit learning. New York: Sage Publications.

Allen, R. & Reber, A. S. (1998) On the smart unconscious. In W. Bechtel & G. Graham (Eds.), A companion to cognitive science. Oxford: Blackwell.

Reber A. S., Allen, R., & Reber, P. J. (1999). Implicit and explicit learning. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Reber, A. S. & Allen, R. (2000) Individual differences in implicit learning. In R. G. Kunzendorf & B. Wallace (Eds.), Individual differences in conscious experience. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Rah, S. K-Y., Reber, A. S., & Hsiao, A. (2000). Another wrinkle on the dual-task SRT experiment: It’s probably not dual-task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 309-313.

Winter, W., Broman, M., Rose, A., & Reber, A. S. (2001). Assessment of cognitive procedural learning in amnesia: Why the Tower of Hanoi has fallen down. Brain and Cognition, 45, 79-96.

Hsiao, A. & Reber, A. S. (2001). The dual task SRT procedure: Fine tuning the timing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 336-342.

Reber, A. S. (2002). Tacit knowledge. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Oxford: Elsevier.

Reber, A. S. (2002). Implicit learning. In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. London: Macmillan Reference Ltd.

Litman, L. & Reber, A. S. (2002). On the temporal course of consolidation of implicitly acquired knowledge. Evolution and Cognition, 8, 145-155.

Litman, L. & Reber, A. S. (2002). Rules, abstractions and evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25,345-346.

Don, A. J., Schellenberg, E. G., Reber, A. S., DiGirolamo, D. M., & Wang, P. P. (2003). Implicit learning in individuals with Williams Syndrome. Developmental Neuropsychology, 23, 201-225.

Reber, A. S. (2003). Some, perhaps surprising, consequences of the “cognitive revolution.” Cognition and Evolution, 9, 102-115.

Zizak, D. M. & Reber, A. S. (2004). The structural mere exposure effect: The dual role of familiarity. Consciousness and Cognition, 13,336-362.

Kercel, S. W., Manges, W. W. & Reber, A. S. (2004). Wiring a human-in-the-loop. In Proceedings of Human-Machine Interface Technologies, Columbus, OH, September, 2004.

Litman , L & Reber, A. S. (2005). Implicit and explicit thought. In K. J. Holyoak & R. G. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning.New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kercel, S. W., Manges, W. W. & Reber, A. S. (2005). Some radical entailments of Paul Bach-y-Rita’s discoveries. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 4, 551-565.

Weiss, S. M., Reber, A. S., & Owen, D. R. (2007). The locus of focus: The effect of switching from a preferred to a non-preferred focus of attention. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 1049-1057.

Reber, A. S. (2008). Learning. In D. L. Schacter, D. Gilbert & D. Wegner, Introductory Psychology. NY: Bedford, Freeman & Worth.

Reber, A. S. (2010). Musing on Brooksian representationalism: A eulogy. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 382-385.

Reber, A. S. (2011). An epitaph for grammar. In C. Sanz & R. P. Loew (Eds.), Implicit and explicit language learning. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press (pp. 23-34).

Weiss, S. M. & Reber, A. S. (2012). Curing the dreaded “Steve Blass” disease. Journal of Sports Psychology in Action, 3, 171-181.

Reber, A. S. (2012). The EVF Model of Gambling: A novel framework for understanding gambling and, by extension, poker. Gaming Research and Review Journal, 16, 63-80.

Collins, H & Reber, A. S. (2013). Ships that pass in the night: Tacit knowledge in psychology and sociology. Philosophia Scientiae, 17, 3-22.

Reber, A. S. (2015). Preface to Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. P. Rebuschat (Ed.). London: Benjamins Press.

Reber, A. S. (2016). Caterpillars, consciousness and the origins of mind. Animal Sentience, 11(1).

Reber, A. S. (2016). Resolving the Hard Problem and calling for a small miracle: Response to Commentary on Reber on Caterpillars and the Origins of Consciousness. Animal Sentience, 11(9).

Reber, A. S. (2017). To identify all the relevant factors is to explain feeling. Animal Sentience 11(14).

Reber, A. S. (2017). What if all animals are sentient. Animal Sentience, 16(6).

Reber, A. S. (2018). Sentient plants? Nervous Minds? Animal Sentience, 11(17).

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (2019). Sentience and consciousness in single cells: How the first minds emerged in unicellular species. BioEssays, Mar;41(3):e1800229. doi: 10.1002/bies.201800229. Epub 2019 Feb 4. PMID: 30714631.

Reber, A. S. & Alcock, J. (2019). Searching for the impossible: Parapsychology’s elusive quest. American Psychologist, 75, 391-399.

Reber, A. S. & Alcock, J. (2019). Why parapsychological claims cannot be true. Skeptical Inquirer, 43, 8-10.

Reber, A. S. (2020). Homeostasis gets its due: An essay on Damasio’s “The Strange Order of Things.” American Journal of Psychology, 133, 263-267.

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (2020). The Biomolecular Basis for Plant and Animal Sentience: Senomic and Ephaptic Principles of Cellular Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 28, 34-59.

Reber, A. S. & Baluška, F. (2020). Cognition in some surprising places. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 564, 150-157 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.08.115

Baluška, F. Miller, W. B. & Reber, A. S. (2021). Biomolecular basis of cellular consciousness via subcellular nano-Brains. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2021, 22, 2545. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052545.

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (2021) CBC-Clock Theory of Life – Integration of Cellular Circadian Clocks and Cellular Sentience is Essential for Cognitive Basis of Life. BioEssays,23, DOI: 10.1002/bies.202100121

Reber, A. S. (forthcoming). Implicit learning: Background, history, and theory. In A. S. Reber & R. Allen (Eds.), The Cognitive Unconscious: The First Half-Century. Oxford University Press.

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (forthcoming). Cellular and Organismal Agency – Not Based on Genes: A Comment on Baverstock. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology.

Reber, A. S. & Baluška, F. (forthcoming). Where minds began: A friendly amendment to Joseph LeDoux’s The Deep History of Ourselves. Journal of the Philosophy of Emotion.


Awards

  • Sigma Xi
  • Senior Fulbright Fellow, University of Innsbruck, Austria (1977 1978)
  • NEH Postdoctoral Fellow, NEH Institute for Philosophy and Psychology of Mind
  • Golden Key National Honor Society (Hon.)
  • Fellow of the American Psychological Society
  • Broeklundian Professorship
  • Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Fellow of the Psychonomic Society

Arthur Reber

Affiliate Professor
location_on 2226 Sunrise Drive
file_download Download CV

BS, University of Pennsylvania, 1961
MS, Brown University, 1965
PhD, Brown University, 1967

  • Assistant Professor, University of British Columbia, 1966-1970.
  • Associate Professor, Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, (CUNY) 1970-1980
  • Professor, Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of CUNY, 1980-1998
  • Broeklundian Professor Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of CUNY, 1998-2006
  • Fulbright Professor, University of Innsbruck, Austria, 1977-1978
  • Affiliate Professor, University of British Columbia, 2006-

Cognitive psychology with a specific focus on "implicit learning" where knowledge is acquired largely (or completely) without conscious awareness of either the process or the products on learning.
The origins of consciousness within a general theory based on the co-terminous nature of life and sentience.

Publications Books

Reber, A. S. & Scarborough, D. L. (Eds.) (1977). Toward a psychology of reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reber, A. S. (1986, 1995, 2001, 2010). Dictionary of psychology. London, Penguin/Viking. Second edition, 1995, Third Edition, (A. S. Reber & E. S. Reber, 2001), Fourth Edition (A.S. Reber, R. Allen & E. S. Reber, 2009).

Reber, A. S. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. NY: Oxford University Press.

Reber, A. S. (2012). Xero to Sixty, a Novel.

Reber, A. S. (2019). The First Minds: Caterpillars, 'Karyotes, and Consciousness. NY: Oxford University Press.

Publications Papers and Book Chapters

Aronfreed, J. & Reber, A. S. (1965). Internalized suppression and the timing of social punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 3 16.

Reber, A. S. & Nosanchuk, T. A. (1967). Long inter-trial intervals in probability learning. Psychonomic Science, 5, 111 112.

Reber, A. S. (1967). Implicit learning of artificial grammars. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 855 863.

Reber, A. S. & Millward, R. B. (1968). Event observation in probability learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 317 327.

Millward, R. B. & Reber, A. S. (1968). Event recall in probability learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 980 989.

Morris, V. A., Rankine, F., & Reber, A. S. (1968). Sentence comprehension, grammatical transformation, and response availability. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 1113 1115.

Reber, A. S. (1969). Response perseveration in binary choice recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 206 214.

Reber. A. S. (1969). Transfer of syntactic structure in synthetic languages. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 115 119.

Reber, A. S. & Anderson, J. R. (1970). Perception of clicks in linguistic and nonlinguistic messages. Perception and Psychophysics, 8, 81 90.

Reber, A. S. & Millward, R. B. (1971). Event tracking in probability learning. American Journal of Psychology, 84, 85 99.

Millward, R. B. & Reber, A. S. (1972). Probability learning: Contingent event sequences with lags. American Journal of Psychology, 85, 81 98.

Reber, A. S. (1973). Locating clicks in sentences: Left, center, and right. Perception and Psychophysics, 10, 133 138.

Reber, A. S. (1973). What clicks may tell us about speech perception. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2, 286 287.

Reber, A. S. (1973). On psycho linguistic paradigms. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2, 289 319.

Reber, A. S. (1976). Implicit learning of synthetic languages: The role of instructional set. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 2, 88 94.

Reber, A. S. & Lewis, S. (1977). Toward a theory of implicit learning: The analysis of the form and structure of a body of tacit knowledge. Cognition, 5, 333 361.

Schneiderman, M. H., Reber, A. S., & Hainline, L. (1978). Anagram solutions as an index of the child’s cognitive and linguistic knowledge. Child Development, 49, 765 772.

Reber, A. S. & Allen, R. (1978). Analogy and abstraction strategies in synthetic grammar learning: A functionalist interpretation. Cognition, 6, 189 221.

Kassin, S. M. & Reber, A. S. (1979). Locus of control and the learning of an artificial language. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 111 118.

Allen, R. & Reber, A. S. (1980). Very long term memory for tacit knowledge. Cognition, 8, 175 185.

Reber, A. S., Kassin, S. M., Lewis, S., & Cantor, G. W. (1980). On the relationship between implicit and explicit modes in the learning of a complex rule structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 492 502.

Reber, A. S. (1982 83). On the paranormal: In defense of skepticism. Skeptical Inquirer, 7, 55 64.

Reber, A. S., Allen, R. & Regan, S. (1985). Syntactical learning and judgment: Still unconscious and still abstract. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 17 24.

Reber. A. S. (1987). The rise and (surprisingly rapid) fall of psycholinguistics. Synthese, 72, 325 339.

Abrams, M. & Reber, A. S. (1988). Implicit learning: Robustness in the face of psychiatric disorders. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 17, 425 439.

Reber, A. S. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 219 235.

Reber, A. S. (1989). More thoughts on the unconscious: A reply to Lewicki & Hill (1989) and Brody (1989). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 242-¬244.

Reber, A. S. (1990). The primacy of the implicit: A comment on Perruchet and Pacteau. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 340 342.

Reber, A. S., Walkenfeld, F. F., & Hernstadt, R. (1991). Implicit learning: Individual differences and IQ. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 888 896.

Kushner, M., Cleeremans, A., & Reber, A. S. (1991). Implicit detection of event inter dependencies and a PDP model of the process. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 215 220. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reber, A. S. (1992). An evolutionary context for the cognitive unconscious. Philosophical Psychology, 5, 33 51.

Reber, A. S. (1992). The cognitive unconscious: An evolutionary perspective. Consciousness and Cognition, 1, 93 133.

Reber, A. S. (1992). Evolution, consciousness, and all that: A reply to Baars and to Parker. Consciousness and Cognition, 1, 143 147.

Reber, A. S. (1993). Personal knowledge and the cognitive unconscious. Polanyiana, 3, 97-115. http://www.polanyi.bme.hu/folyoirat/1992-02/1992_4_7_Arthur_Reber_cognitive_unconscious.pdf

Rathus, J., Reber, A. S., Manza, L, & Kushner, M. (1994). Implicit and explicit learning: Differential effects of affective states. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 163-184.

Reber, A. S. & Winter, B. (1994). What manner of mind is this? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 418-419.

Winter, B. & Reber, A. S. (1994). Implicit learning and natural language acquisition. In N. C. Ellis (Ed.). Implicit and explicit learning of languages. London: Academic Press.

Reber, A. S. (1997). How to differentiate implicit from explicit learning. In J. Cohen & J. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific approaches to consciousness. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reber, A. S. (1997). Implicit ruminations. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 4, 49-55

Manza, L. & Reber, A. S. (1997). Representing artificial grammars: Transfer across stimulus forms and modalities. In D. C. Berry (Ed.) How implicit is implicit learning?. London: Oxford University Press.

Reber, A. S. (1997). Caterpillars and consciousness. Philosophical Psychology, 10, 437-450.

Manza, L., Zizak, D. & Reber, A. S. (1998). Artificial grammar learning and the mere exposure effect. In M. Stadler & P. Frensch (Eds.), Handbook of implicit learning. New York: Sage Publications.

Hsiao, A. & Reber, A. S. (1998). The role of attention in implicit sequence learning. In M. Stadler & P. Frensch (Eds.), Handbook of implicit learning. New York: Sage Publications.

Allen, R. & Reber, A. S. (1998) On the smart unconscious. In W. Bechtel & G. Graham (Eds.), A companion to cognitive science. Oxford: Blackwell.

Reber A. S., Allen, R., & Reber, P. J. (1999). Implicit and explicit learning. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Reber, A. S. & Allen, R. (2000) Individual differences in implicit learning. In R. G. Kunzendorf & B. Wallace (Eds.), Individual differences in conscious experience. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Rah, S. K-Y., Reber, A. S., & Hsiao, A. (2000). Another wrinkle on the dual-task SRT experiment: It’s probably not dual-task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 309-313.

Winter, W., Broman, M., Rose, A., & Reber, A. S. (2001). Assessment of cognitive procedural learning in amnesia: Why the Tower of Hanoi has fallen down. Brain and Cognition, 45, 79-96.

Hsiao, A. & Reber, A. S. (2001). The dual task SRT procedure: Fine tuning the timing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 336-342.

Reber, A. S. (2002). Tacit knowledge. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Oxford: Elsevier.

Reber, A. S. (2002). Implicit learning. In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. London: Macmillan Reference Ltd.

Litman, L. & Reber, A. S. (2002). On the temporal course of consolidation of implicitly acquired knowledge. Evolution and Cognition, 8, 145-155.

Litman, L. & Reber, A. S. (2002). Rules, abstractions and evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25,345-346.

Don, A. J., Schellenberg, E. G., Reber, A. S., DiGirolamo, D. M., & Wang, P. P. (2003). Implicit learning in individuals with Williams Syndrome. Developmental Neuropsychology, 23, 201-225.

Reber, A. S. (2003). Some, perhaps surprising, consequences of the “cognitive revolution.” Cognition and Evolution, 9, 102-115.

Zizak, D. M. & Reber, A. S. (2004). The structural mere exposure effect: The dual role of familiarity. Consciousness and Cognition, 13,336-362.

Kercel, S. W., Manges, W. W. & Reber, A. S. (2004). Wiring a human-in-the-loop. In Proceedings of Human-Machine Interface Technologies, Columbus, OH, September, 2004.

Litman , L & Reber, A. S. (2005). Implicit and explicit thought. In K. J. Holyoak & R. G. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning.New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kercel, S. W., Manges, W. W. & Reber, A. S. (2005). Some radical entailments of Paul Bach-y-Rita’s discoveries. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 4, 551-565.

Weiss, S. M., Reber, A. S., & Owen, D. R. (2007). The locus of focus: The effect of switching from a preferred to a non-preferred focus of attention. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 1049-1057.

Reber, A. S. (2008). Learning. In D. L. Schacter, D. Gilbert & D. Wegner, Introductory Psychology. NY: Bedford, Freeman & Worth.

Reber, A. S. (2010). Musing on Brooksian representationalism: A eulogy. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 382-385.

Reber, A. S. (2011). An epitaph for grammar. In C. Sanz & R. P. Loew (Eds.), Implicit and explicit language learning. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press (pp. 23-34).

Weiss, S. M. & Reber, A. S. (2012). Curing the dreaded “Steve Blass” disease. Journal of Sports Psychology in Action, 3, 171-181.

Reber, A. S. (2012). The EVF Model of Gambling: A novel framework for understanding gambling and, by extension, poker. Gaming Research and Review Journal, 16, 63-80.

Collins, H & Reber, A. S. (2013). Ships that pass in the night: Tacit knowledge in psychology and sociology. Philosophia Scientiae, 17, 3-22.

Reber, A. S. (2015). Preface to Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. P. Rebuschat (Ed.). London: Benjamins Press.

Reber, A. S. (2016). Caterpillars, consciousness and the origins of mind. Animal Sentience, 11(1).

Reber, A. S. (2016). Resolving the Hard Problem and calling for a small miracle: Response to Commentary on Reber on Caterpillars and the Origins of Consciousness. Animal Sentience, 11(9).

Reber, A. S. (2017). To identify all the relevant factors is to explain feeling. Animal Sentience 11(14).

Reber, A. S. (2017). What if all animals are sentient. Animal Sentience, 16(6).

Reber, A. S. (2018). Sentient plants? Nervous Minds? Animal Sentience, 11(17).

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (2019). Sentience and consciousness in single cells: How the first minds emerged in unicellular species. BioEssays, Mar;41(3):e1800229. doi: 10.1002/bies.201800229. Epub 2019 Feb 4. PMID: 30714631.

Reber, A. S. & Alcock, J. (2019). Searching for the impossible: Parapsychology's elusive quest. American Psychologist, 75, 391-399.

Reber, A. S. & Alcock, J. (2019). Why parapsychological claims cannot be true. Skeptical Inquirer, 43, 8-10.

Reber, A. S. (2020). Homeostasis gets its due: An essay on Damasio's "The Strange Order of Things." American Journal of Psychology, 133, 263-267.

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (2020). The Biomolecular Basis for Plant and Animal Sentience: Senomic and Ephaptic Principles of Cellular Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 28, 34-59.

Reber, A. S. & Baluška, F. (2020). Cognition in some surprising places. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 564, 150-157 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.08.115

Baluška, F. Miller, W. B. & Reber, A. S. (2021). Biomolecular basis of cellular consciousness via subcellular nano-Brains. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2021, 22, 2545. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052545.

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (2021) CBC-Clock Theory of Life - Integration of Cellular Circadian Clocks and Cellular Sentience is Essential for Cognitive Basis of Life. BioEssays,23, DOI: 10.1002/bies.202100121

Reber, A. S. (forthcoming). Implicit learning: Background, history, and theory. In A. S. Reber & R. Allen (Eds.), The Cognitive Unconscious: The First Half-Century. Oxford University Press.

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (forthcoming). Cellular and Organismal Agency – Not Based on Genes: A Comment on Baverstock. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology.

Reber, A. S. & Baluška, F. (forthcoming). Where minds began: A friendly amendment to Joseph LeDoux's The Deep History of Ourselves. Journal of the Philosophy of Emotion.

  • Sigma Xi
  • Senior Fulbright Fellow, University of Innsbruck, Austria (1977 1978)
  • NEH Postdoctoral Fellow, NEH Institute for Philosophy and Psychology of Mind
  • Golden Key National Honor Society (Hon.)
  • Fellow of the American Psychological Society
  • Broeklundian Professorship
  • Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Fellow of the Psychonomic Society

Arthur Reber

Affiliate Professor
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BS, University of Pennsylvania, 1961
MS, Brown University, 1965
PhD, Brown University, 1967

  • Assistant Professor, University of British Columbia, 1966-1970.
  • Associate Professor, Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, (CUNY) 1970-1980
  • Professor, Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of CUNY, 1980-1998
  • Broeklundian Professor Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of CUNY, 1998-2006
  • Fulbright Professor, University of Innsbruck, Austria, 1977-1978
  • Affiliate Professor, University of British Columbia, 2006-

Cognitive psychology with a specific focus on "implicit learning" where knowledge is acquired largely (or completely) without conscious awareness of either the process or the products on learning.
The origins of consciousness within a general theory based on the co-terminous nature of life and sentience.

Publications Books

Reber, A. S. & Scarborough, D. L. (Eds.) (1977). Toward a psychology of reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reber, A. S. (1986, 1995, 2001, 2010). Dictionary of psychology. London, Penguin/Viking. Second edition, 1995, Third Edition, (A. S. Reber & E. S. Reber, 2001), Fourth Edition (A.S. Reber, R. Allen & E. S. Reber, 2009).

Reber, A. S. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. NY: Oxford University Press.

Reber, A. S. (2012). Xero to Sixty, a Novel.

Reber, A. S. (2019). The First Minds: Caterpillars, 'Karyotes, and Consciousness. NY: Oxford University Press.

Publications Papers and Book Chapters

Aronfreed, J. & Reber, A. S. (1965). Internalized suppression and the timing of social punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 3 16.

Reber, A. S. & Nosanchuk, T. A. (1967). Long inter-trial intervals in probability learning. Psychonomic Science, 5, 111 112.

Reber, A. S. (1967). Implicit learning of artificial grammars. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 855 863.

Reber, A. S. & Millward, R. B. (1968). Event observation in probability learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 317 327.

Millward, R. B. & Reber, A. S. (1968). Event recall in probability learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 980 989.

Morris, V. A., Rankine, F., & Reber, A. S. (1968). Sentence comprehension, grammatical transformation, and response availability. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 1113 1115.

Reber, A. S. (1969). Response perseveration in binary choice recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 206 214.

Reber. A. S. (1969). Transfer of syntactic structure in synthetic languages. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 115 119.

Reber, A. S. & Anderson, J. R. (1970). Perception of clicks in linguistic and nonlinguistic messages. Perception and Psychophysics, 8, 81 90.

Reber, A. S. & Millward, R. B. (1971). Event tracking in probability learning. American Journal of Psychology, 84, 85 99.

Millward, R. B. & Reber, A. S. (1972). Probability learning: Contingent event sequences with lags. American Journal of Psychology, 85, 81 98.

Reber, A. S. (1973). Locating clicks in sentences: Left, center, and right. Perception and Psychophysics, 10, 133 138.

Reber, A. S. (1973). What clicks may tell us about speech perception. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2, 286 287.

Reber, A. S. (1973). On psycho linguistic paradigms. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2, 289 319.

Reber, A. S. (1976). Implicit learning of synthetic languages: The role of instructional set. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 2, 88 94.

Reber, A. S. & Lewis, S. (1977). Toward a theory of implicit learning: The analysis of the form and structure of a body of tacit knowledge. Cognition, 5, 333 361.

Schneiderman, M. H., Reber, A. S., & Hainline, L. (1978). Anagram solutions as an index of the child’s cognitive and linguistic knowledge. Child Development, 49, 765 772.

Reber, A. S. & Allen, R. (1978). Analogy and abstraction strategies in synthetic grammar learning: A functionalist interpretation. Cognition, 6, 189 221.

Kassin, S. M. & Reber, A. S. (1979). Locus of control and the learning of an artificial language. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 111 118.

Allen, R. & Reber, A. S. (1980). Very long term memory for tacit knowledge. Cognition, 8, 175 185.

Reber, A. S., Kassin, S. M., Lewis, S., & Cantor, G. W. (1980). On the relationship between implicit and explicit modes in the learning of a complex rule structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 492 502.

Reber, A. S. (1982 83). On the paranormal: In defense of skepticism. Skeptical Inquirer, 7, 55 64.

Reber, A. S., Allen, R. & Regan, S. (1985). Syntactical learning and judgment: Still unconscious and still abstract. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 17 24.

Reber. A. S. (1987). The rise and (surprisingly rapid) fall of psycholinguistics. Synthese, 72, 325 339.

Abrams, M. & Reber, A. S. (1988). Implicit learning: Robustness in the face of psychiatric disorders. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 17, 425 439.

Reber, A. S. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 219 235.

Reber, A. S. (1989). More thoughts on the unconscious: A reply to Lewicki & Hill (1989) and Brody (1989). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 242-¬244.

Reber, A. S. (1990). The primacy of the implicit: A comment on Perruchet and Pacteau. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 340 342.

Reber, A. S., Walkenfeld, F. F., & Hernstadt, R. (1991). Implicit learning: Individual differences and IQ. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 888 896.

Kushner, M., Cleeremans, A., & Reber, A. S. (1991). Implicit detection of event inter dependencies and a PDP model of the process. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 215 220. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reber, A. S. (1992). An evolutionary context for the cognitive unconscious. Philosophical Psychology, 5, 33 51.

Reber, A. S. (1992). The cognitive unconscious: An evolutionary perspective. Consciousness and Cognition, 1, 93 133.

Reber, A. S. (1992). Evolution, consciousness, and all that: A reply to Baars and to Parker. Consciousness and Cognition, 1, 143 147.

Reber, A. S. (1993). Personal knowledge and the cognitive unconscious. Polanyiana, 3, 97-115. http://www.polanyi.bme.hu/folyoirat/1992-02/1992_4_7_Arthur_Reber_cognitive_unconscious.pdf

Rathus, J., Reber, A. S., Manza, L, & Kushner, M. (1994). Implicit and explicit learning: Differential effects of affective states. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 163-184.

Reber, A. S. & Winter, B. (1994). What manner of mind is this? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 418-419.

Winter, B. & Reber, A. S. (1994). Implicit learning and natural language acquisition. In N. C. Ellis (Ed.). Implicit and explicit learning of languages. London: Academic Press.

Reber, A. S. (1997). How to differentiate implicit from explicit learning. In J. Cohen & J. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific approaches to consciousness. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reber, A. S. (1997). Implicit ruminations. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 4, 49-55

Manza, L. & Reber, A. S. (1997). Representing artificial grammars: Transfer across stimulus forms and modalities. In D. C. Berry (Ed.) How implicit is implicit learning?. London: Oxford University Press.

Reber, A. S. (1997). Caterpillars and consciousness. Philosophical Psychology, 10, 437-450.

Manza, L., Zizak, D. & Reber, A. S. (1998). Artificial grammar learning and the mere exposure effect. In M. Stadler & P. Frensch (Eds.), Handbook of implicit learning. New York: Sage Publications.

Hsiao, A. & Reber, A. S. (1998). The role of attention in implicit sequence learning. In M. Stadler & P. Frensch (Eds.), Handbook of implicit learning. New York: Sage Publications.

Allen, R. & Reber, A. S. (1998) On the smart unconscious. In W. Bechtel & G. Graham (Eds.), A companion to cognitive science. Oxford: Blackwell.

Reber A. S., Allen, R., & Reber, P. J. (1999). Implicit and explicit learning. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Reber, A. S. & Allen, R. (2000) Individual differences in implicit learning. In R. G. Kunzendorf & B. Wallace (Eds.), Individual differences in conscious experience. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Rah, S. K-Y., Reber, A. S., & Hsiao, A. (2000). Another wrinkle on the dual-task SRT experiment: It’s probably not dual-task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 309-313.

Winter, W., Broman, M., Rose, A., & Reber, A. S. (2001). Assessment of cognitive procedural learning in amnesia: Why the Tower of Hanoi has fallen down. Brain and Cognition, 45, 79-96.

Hsiao, A. & Reber, A. S. (2001). The dual task SRT procedure: Fine tuning the timing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 336-342.

Reber, A. S. (2002). Tacit knowledge. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Oxford: Elsevier.

Reber, A. S. (2002). Implicit learning. In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. London: Macmillan Reference Ltd.

Litman, L. & Reber, A. S. (2002). On the temporal course of consolidation of implicitly acquired knowledge. Evolution and Cognition, 8, 145-155.

Litman, L. & Reber, A. S. (2002). Rules, abstractions and evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25,345-346.

Don, A. J., Schellenberg, E. G., Reber, A. S., DiGirolamo, D. M., & Wang, P. P. (2003). Implicit learning in individuals with Williams Syndrome. Developmental Neuropsychology, 23, 201-225.

Reber, A. S. (2003). Some, perhaps surprising, consequences of the “cognitive revolution.” Cognition and Evolution, 9, 102-115.

Zizak, D. M. & Reber, A. S. (2004). The structural mere exposure effect: The dual role of familiarity. Consciousness and Cognition, 13,336-362.

Kercel, S. W., Manges, W. W. & Reber, A. S. (2004). Wiring a human-in-the-loop. In Proceedings of Human-Machine Interface Technologies, Columbus, OH, September, 2004.

Litman , L & Reber, A. S. (2005). Implicit and explicit thought. In K. J. Holyoak & R. G. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning.New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kercel, S. W., Manges, W. W. & Reber, A. S. (2005). Some radical entailments of Paul Bach-y-Rita’s discoveries. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 4, 551-565.

Weiss, S. M., Reber, A. S., & Owen, D. R. (2007). The locus of focus: The effect of switching from a preferred to a non-preferred focus of attention. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 1049-1057.

Reber, A. S. (2008). Learning. In D. L. Schacter, D. Gilbert & D. Wegner, Introductory Psychology. NY: Bedford, Freeman & Worth.

Reber, A. S. (2010). Musing on Brooksian representationalism: A eulogy. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 382-385.

Reber, A. S. (2011). An epitaph for grammar. In C. Sanz & R. P. Loew (Eds.), Implicit and explicit language learning. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press (pp. 23-34).

Weiss, S. M. & Reber, A. S. (2012). Curing the dreaded “Steve Blass” disease. Journal of Sports Psychology in Action, 3, 171-181.

Reber, A. S. (2012). The EVF Model of Gambling: A novel framework for understanding gambling and, by extension, poker. Gaming Research and Review Journal, 16, 63-80.

Collins, H & Reber, A. S. (2013). Ships that pass in the night: Tacit knowledge in psychology and sociology. Philosophia Scientiae, 17, 3-22.

Reber, A. S. (2015). Preface to Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. P. Rebuschat (Ed.). London: Benjamins Press.

Reber, A. S. (2016). Caterpillars, consciousness and the origins of mind. Animal Sentience, 11(1).

Reber, A. S. (2016). Resolving the Hard Problem and calling for a small miracle: Response to Commentary on Reber on Caterpillars and the Origins of Consciousness. Animal Sentience, 11(9).

Reber, A. S. (2017). To identify all the relevant factors is to explain feeling. Animal Sentience 11(14).

Reber, A. S. (2017). What if all animals are sentient. Animal Sentience, 16(6).

Reber, A. S. (2018). Sentient plants? Nervous Minds? Animal Sentience, 11(17).

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (2019). Sentience and consciousness in single cells: How the first minds emerged in unicellular species. BioEssays, Mar;41(3):e1800229. doi: 10.1002/bies.201800229. Epub 2019 Feb 4. PMID: 30714631.

Reber, A. S. & Alcock, J. (2019). Searching for the impossible: Parapsychology's elusive quest. American Psychologist, 75, 391-399.

Reber, A. S. & Alcock, J. (2019). Why parapsychological claims cannot be true. Skeptical Inquirer, 43, 8-10.

Reber, A. S. (2020). Homeostasis gets its due: An essay on Damasio's "The Strange Order of Things." American Journal of Psychology, 133, 263-267.

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (2020). The Biomolecular Basis for Plant and Animal Sentience: Senomic and Ephaptic Principles of Cellular Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 28, 34-59.

Reber, A. S. & Baluška, F. (2020). Cognition in some surprising places. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 564, 150-157 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.08.115

Baluška, F. Miller, W. B. & Reber, A. S. (2021). Biomolecular basis of cellular consciousness via subcellular nano-Brains. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2021, 22, 2545. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052545.

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (2021) CBC-Clock Theory of Life - Integration of Cellular Circadian Clocks and Cellular Sentience is Essential for Cognitive Basis of Life. BioEssays,23, DOI: 10.1002/bies.202100121

Reber, A. S. (forthcoming). Implicit learning: Background, history, and theory. In A. S. Reber & R. Allen (Eds.), The Cognitive Unconscious: The First Half-Century. Oxford University Press.

Baluška, F. & Reber, A. S. (forthcoming). Cellular and Organismal Agency – Not Based on Genes: A Comment on Baverstock. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology.

Reber, A. S. & Baluška, F. (forthcoming). Where minds began: A friendly amendment to Joseph LeDoux's The Deep History of Ourselves. Journal of the Philosophy of Emotion.

  • Sigma Xi
  • Senior Fulbright Fellow, University of Innsbruck, Austria (1977 1978)
  • NEH Postdoctoral Fellow, NEH Institute for Philosophy and Psychology of Mind
  • Golden Key National Honor Society (Hon.)
  • Fellow of the American Psychological Society
  • Broeklundian Professorship
  • Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Fellow of the Psychonomic Society